By Roderic Gray (Auth.)
"How does it think to paintings here?"--The significance of an organization's weather is critical to its success.
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Additional info for A Climate of Success. Creating the right organizational climate for high performance
Money] for performing a task, the more likely we are to lose our intrinsic motivation to perform that task. On the other hand, the more we receive verbal reinforcements, the more we come to develop intrinsic motivations to perform the task’. , 1992), and by Kanfer (1990), who says that ‘the undermining effects of extrinsic rewards on task interest and free-choice behavior have been shown in numerous studies’. In my own research (Gray, 2000b) I have found that incentive payments, which are intended to motivate people to exceed ‘standard’ performance, often get included in what people expect to be paid.
A human activity system ‘can be described as an interacting set of subsystems or an interacting set of activities. A subsystem is no different to a system except in terms of level of detail and hence a subsystem can be redefined as a system and modelled as a set of activities. Thus the term “system” and “activity” can be used 57 A Climate of Success interchangeably’ (Wilson, 1984). In other words, ‘a system is, at the same time, a subsystem of some wider system and is itself a wider system to its subsystems.
Systems thinking is different because it is about the framework itself ’ (Checkland, 1984). ‘The defining characteristic of a system is that it cannot be understood as a function of its isolated components’ (Kofman and Senge, 1993). Systems come in various forms, but the kinds of systems which interest us here are open systems which ‘exchange … materials, energy and information’ with their environments and which have ‘a set of processes in which there is communication of information for purposes of regulation or control’ (Checkland, 1981).