By Dimitrios A. Linos, Jon A. van Heerden
- Over 2 hundred beautiful illustrations, starting from intraoperative photos, line drawings, diagnostic photos, pathology slides, tables and graphs can be found to make each one case mentioned understandable and simple to follow.
- conventional and novel healing concepts are introducedand the most recent advancements in minimal-access operative options are mentioned and reviewed.
- makes a speciality of a teamwork orientated process that identifies the mandatory communications among the various clinical disciplines while facing adrenal problems.
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Extra resources for Adrenal Glands Diagnostic Aspects and Surgical Therapy
References 1. Aghajanian GK, Van der Maelen CP (1982) a2-Adrenoreceptor-mediated hyperpolarization of locus ceruleus neurons: Intracellular studies in vivo. Science 215: 1394–1396 2. Aguilera G, Flores M, Carvallo P, et al (1990) Receptors for corticotropin-releasing factor. In: DeSouza EB, Nemeroff CB (eds) Corticotropin-releasing factor: Basic and clinical studies of a neuropeptide. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 154–159 3. Aguilera G, Millan MA, Hauger RL, et al (1987) Corticotropin-releasing factor receptors: Distribution and regulation in brain, pituitary, and peripheral tissues.
33 Circulatory and Structural Relationships Between the Adrenal Cortex and Medulla . . 33 Central and Peripheral Neural Pathways Involved in the Regulation of the Adrenal Cortex and Medulla . . 34 Functional Integration of Neural and Humoral Activity: The Sympathoadrenal System . . 36 Main Integrative Mechanisms . . 36 Intra-adrenal Regulatory Mechanisms . . 38 Blood Flow . . 38 References . . 38 In this chapter an attempt is made to show that the neuroectodermally derived adrenal medulla and the mesodermally derived adrenal cortex are organized into a single gland despite their different embryonic origin, and have achieved a phylogenetically unified function.
The time-limited nature of this process renders the induced adaptive antireproductive, antigrowth, catabolic and immunosuppressive effects temporarily beneficial rather than damaging and prevents significant adverse consequences . In contrast,prolongation of the HPA axis activation,as documented in chronic stressful conditions, would lead to the stress syndromal state that Selye described in 1936 characterized by anorexia, loss of weight, depression, hypogonadism, peptic ulcers, immunosuppression, adrenal enlargement and involution of the thymus and lymph nodes .