Download African Mathematics: From Bones to Computers by Mamokgethi Setati, Abdul Karim Bangura PDF

By Mamokgethi Setati, Abdul Karim Bangura

This can be the 1st finished textual content on African arithmetic that may be used to deal with a few of the difficult concerns during this sector. those matters contain attitudes, curriculum improvement, academic swap, educational success, standardized and different checks, functionality elements, scholar features, cross-cultural transformations and experiences, literacy, local audio system, social classification and modifications, equivalent schooling, educating tools, wisdom point, academic guidance and regulations, transitional faculties, comparative schooling, different topics equivalent to physics and social reviews, surveys, expertise, academic examine, instructor schooling and skills, educational criteria, instructor effectiveness, lesson plans and modules, instructor features, guidelines, application effectiveness, application assessment, African tradition, African heritage, Black stories, type actions, academic video games, quantity structures, cognitive skill, international impact, and basic recommendations. What unifies the chapters during this booklet can seem quite banal, yet many mathematical insights are so visible and so primary that they're tough to soak up, take pleasure in, and convey with clean readability. many of the extra easy insights are remoted through debts of investigators who've earned their contemporaries' appreciate.

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He also discusses various conjectures about unit fractions. For instance, 4/n and 5/n can always be written as the sum of three or less Egyptian fractions. He further generates some interesting results such as the denominators of the unit fractions being required to be squares, be cubes, or be square free. WRITTEN EGYPTIAN MATHEMATICS According to Williams, as early as 4800 BC, the Egyptians had developed a calendar. In 4200 BC, their Mathematics and Astronomy produced a 365day calendar (12 months of 30 days plus five feast days).

Between the two papyri, there are 112 mathematical problems with their solutions (Joseph 1991/2000:59–60). Among the minor sources, there is the Egyptian mace head from the early third millennium BC which contains the war booty of the Pharaoh Namer: 120,000 prisoners; 400,000 oxen; and 1,422,000 goats. Recording these numbers required a highly developed system of numerals that allowed counting to continue indefinitely by the introduction of a new system whenever necessary. indb 44 9/7/10 5:04 PM Beginnings of Written Mathematics: Egypt 45 multaneous equations, one of second degree; the Reisner Papyri, consisting of four worm-eaten rolls which record volume calculations relating to temples, from around 1800 BC; and the Kahun Papyrus, containing six scattered mathematical fragments, not all of which have been deciphered, from around 1800 BC (Joseph 1991/2000:60).

The second example Gerdes provides shows some Chokwe (in Angola) sand drawings with a four-fold symmetry. He easily transforms each drawing into one of the preceding Pythagorean designs. The third example Gerdes presents is a beautiful tiling from the Kuba people who inhabit the central part of the Congo basin, living in the Savannah south of the dense equatorial forest. The Kuba are famous for their metal products such as weapons and jewelry. Their villages themselves had specialized in the production of certain types of craft like wooden boxes and cups, copper pipes, raffia cloths, etc.

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