By Walter Leuthold
This ebook has been written generally within reach of untamed African ungulates, on the learn heart in Tsavo East nationwide Park, V oi, Kenya. whereas this had many good points, there have been additionally a couple of drawbacks. the most this kind of is the truth that Voi isn't precisely on the hub of medical job, whether we limit ourselves to African ungulates. therefore, while I had felt at the start that i used to be sufficiently acquainted with ethological paintings on those animals to jot down an invaluable assessment, it quickly grew to become woefully obtrusive that this assumption was once faulty. during the last few years stories on African ungulates have seasoned liferated and effects are being released in journals just about all over the realm. My position in East Africa used to be occasionally under perfect with appreciate to entry to the newest literature, and that i depended to a substantial quantity at the goodwill of comrades in giving or lending me correct papers. i'm satisfied to record that I acquired loads of aid and cooperation during this appreciate. however, i could have over regarded a few very important papers inadvertently; their authors usually are not believe slighted via such omissions, which basically mirror availability of literature to me. Readers can also observe a substantial geographical bias in prefer of East Africa, on the price of different African areas, fairly South Africa.
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Additional resources for African Ungulates: A Comparative Review of Their Ethology and Behavioral Ecology
However, animals of any given species show considerable variation in their food habits in different places (e. , black rhinoceros: Goddard, 1968, 1970; gerenuk: Leuthold, 1970a). This means that the composition of the diet depends to some extent on what is available in anyone habitat, and suggests that learning also plays a part in the formation of food habits. This assumption is supported further by the fact that most ungulates are relatively 26 flexible in their food habits, to accommodate seasonal and local fluctuations in food supply, and that they can usually be induced to accept entirely strange foods, e.
Comfort Behavior This category comprises all behavior related to the care of the body, particularly its surface, including the removal of local irritations and/or ectoparasites. We can distinguish three main types of body care behavior: (1) that performed only by the animal's own body or parts of it (self- or autogrooming, e. , shaking of entire body or of head only, ear and tail movements, biting, licking, scratching with hindfeet), (2) that involving inanimate objects of the animal's surroundings (e.
Urination almost invariably precedes defecation, but this does not necessarily mean that urination releases or "catalyzes" defecation. 32 Also, voidance in one animal often induces the same in others (allelomimetic behavior), particularly in gregarious species such as impala, or between mother and young (e. , in black rhino: Schenkel and Schenkel-Hulliger, 1969). A change from one type of activity to another is often accompanied by urination and/or defecation; this is particularly pronounced after a period of resting (e.