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By M. Mazzenga

This book examines how American Protestants, Catholics and Jews answered to the persecution of Jews in Germany and German-occupied territory within the Nineteen Thirties. The essays specialize in American non secular responses to Kristallnacht and characterize the 1st exam of multi-religious staff responses to the beginnings of the Holocaust.

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Extra info for American Religious Responses to Kristallnacht

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Deeply divided concerning the participation of the United States in the World War of 1914–1918 and embarrassed by the triumphalist and militaristic rhetoric of clergy during that conflict, American Protestant clergy turned decisively toward pacifism during the 1920s and early 1930s. In 1934, a survey of over 20,000 Protestant clergy sponsored by several leading denominations (Congregationalists, Baptists, Methodists, 38 Kyle Jantzen and Episcopalians) revealed that two-thirds of clergy “expressed the opinion that the Churches should not sanction or support any future war,” and declared that as individuals they would not sanction it either.

41 The Toronto Star also carried news of the rally on its front page, noting how “the main gathering was one of the most cosmopolitan Toronto has ever witnessed. S. Federal Council of Churches had been in the first two weeks following Kristallnacht, their protests were almost entirely rhetorical in nature. A few urged the American and Canadians governments Fatherhood of God & Brotherhood of Man 49 to pressure the Germans, or appealed directly to Hitler through the German ambassador Dieckhoff. Only rarely, however, did the practical matter of aid to the victims of Nazi persecution emerge as a theme.

The Situation in Germany,” by H. Schoenfeld, dated April 25, 1933. ” 20. See especially the reports by A. J. Macdonald and Bishop Batty in Chandler, Brethren in Adversity. 21. Henry Smith Leiper papers, Burke Library, Union Theological Seminary, New York: Folder, Correspondence—Federal Council of Churches 1934–39, Letter, Leiper to Cavert, en route to Copenhagen, September 2, 1933. 22. , Letter Walter Van Kirk to Leiper, March 20, 1933. 23. Letter, Siegmund-Schultze to Cavert, October 17, 1933.

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