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Both of Babbage's machines greatly influenced future re- In 1 842 Augusta Ada Byron, Countess of Love­ lace ( Figure 2 - 1 1 ), daughter of the poet Lord Byron, translated a paper on Babbage's Analytical Engine from French to English. During her work on the translation she made abundant notes, and at one point included a detailed sequence of in­ structions for the Analytical Engine to perform certain complex calculations. This is generally considered the first computer program and gives Lady Lovelace the distinction of being regarded by many as the world's first computer program­ mer.

The supercomputer field has also grown. Sey­ mour Cray, Control Data Corporation's chief de­ signer, left CDC in 1 972 to form Cray Research Inc. In 1 976 the company introduced the CRAY- 1 , 3 9 fmj which performs 8 0 million instructions per sec­ ond, and in 1 9 8 2 the CRAY X-MP (Figure 2 - 24), which performs 1 billion instructions per second. One of the most important developments of the fourth generation was the introduction of the microcomputer. The complete "computer on a chip" has become commonplace.

Unfortunately, Babbage never completed the Analytical Engine. The technology of the time was inadequate for producing the necessary me­ chanical components to the required precision. Also, there was no real need for such a powerful machine-the calculating devices already avail­ able were more than capable of meeting the com­ puting needs of the mid- to late 1 8 00s. As a result, the British government stopped supporting Bab­ bage's projects in 1 842, and he was left without funds to continue his research.

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